Dr. Robert Lustig on Unstoppable with Kara GoldinWelcome to the first ever episode of Unstoppable with Kara Goldin. This podcast dives into individuals stories who are disrupting their fields across wellness, business and life. Join host Kara Goldin, CEO of Hint Inc, as she discusses what makes a change maker.

Our first guest on the show is Dr. Robert Lustig, a pediatric endocrinologist and professor of pediatrics in the division of endocrinology at University of California San Francisco.

As a fellow San Franciscan, Dr. Lustig stopped by the Hint Water headquarters to chat about his career path and how he came to specialize in childhood obesity and neuroendocrinology.

We also talk about his new book, Hacking of the American Mind.

Listen in to learn about what sweet drinks are doing to our bodies and our minds, as well as new research about the growing diabetes pandemic.

You can Subscribe and Listen to the Podcast on Apple Podcasts. And be sure to leave us a Rating and Review!

Unstoppable with Kara Goldin on Apple Podcasts

“It turns out that stress is a primary, possibly the seminal driver of visceral fat.” – Dr. Robert Lustig

Show Notes:

  • How he ended up in Endocrinology
  • The obesity problem and why genetics are only part of the story
  • Why soda and soft drinks have huge effects on global obesity issues
  • How stress factors in to pre-diabetes and diabetes rates
  • Why we have a pandemic of type II diabetes in children
  • What diet sweeteners do to sugary drinks
  • Why he decided to write his book Hacking of the American Mind
  • All about dopamine and serotonin
  • Why the food industry wants you to be dehydrated
  • How to get your serotonin system working

“Four things drive up serotonin, and they are the 4 things that your mother told you.” – Dr. Robert Lustig

The 4 C’s of Serotonin Happiness:

  1. Connect
  2. Contribute
  3. Cope: Sleep, Mindfulness, Exercise
  4. Cook

Links Mentioned:

Facebook | YouTube | Twitter | LinkedInRobert Lustig


Dr. LustigSo the question is, you know, like if dopamine is ruling your life and making you miserable in the process, what do you need to do? Four things. And they’re the four things your mother told you. But you, because of, number one, your busy life, number two, your money in your pocket, and number three, your addiction, never listened to those four. But we have the data that actually demonstrates why these are the case.
VoiceoversSo here we have this dilemma, this [inaudible 00:0:33]
I spent almost a decade researching this subject.
Kara GFrom the Hint offices in San Francisco, I’m Kara Goldin.VoiceoversEvery aspect of your metabolic health improves.Kara GEach week, we’re talking to innovators and game changers who think outside the box and tackle problems that few address.
What does it really take to be unstoppable?
Let’s find out.
Dr. Lustig, thank you so much for being here today.
Dr. LustigOh, it’s my pleasure, Kara.Kara GAnd we’re very, very excited to have you. So Dr. Lustig is an American pediatric endocrinologist, I think one of the best. And he’s a professor of pediatrics in the division of endocrinology at the University of California San Francisco, where he specializes in neuroendocrinology and childhood obesity. Thanks so much for coming.
We are really, really excited today to not only talk to him about health and some of the things that he has talked about in the past, but also he has a new book – so, the Hacking of the American Mind and I would love to get deeper into sort of why you decided to write that.
But first of all, so pediatric endocrinology at UCSF, a very much acclaimed person that I have sitting in front of me. I’d love to hear from you, sort of how did you end up in that field and why did you decide to really pursue the pediatric endocrinology side of this?
Dr. LustigSo years ago when I decided to be a doctor, I did a term paper, I guess in high school, on the hypothalamus. That’s an area of the brain at the base of the brain. It’s about the size of your fingernail and it controls all the different hormone functions of the body. And then we shortly thereafter learned that a lot of the hormones control what goes on in the brain. And that just captured me and I have been interested in this field ever since because it translates into so many different aspects of not just medicine, but society. In terms of obviously neuroscience, in terms of behavior, in terms of economics, in terms of why we do what we do.
And you know, obesity was the ultimate final frontier in this field called neuroendocrinology. In 1994, we learned about a hormone called leptin. Leptin is made by your fat cells, goes to your brain, tells your brain number one, you’ve had enough. And number two, you can burn energy at a normal rate because you’re not starving.
So people got very interested in leptin and so did I of course, and we did a study 20 some odd years ago demonstrating the kids who had brain tumors who became massively obese because of the damage that the tumor did. They weren’t seeing their leptin and because of that, the brain thought they were starving and because of that they were releasing too much of the hormone insulin. Insulin’s the energy storage hormone. So these kids were storing it and not burning it. They felt terrible. They would sit on a log, anything that interested them before, now it did not interest them. The parents would say things like, this is double jeopardy. My kids survived the tumor only to succumb to the treatment. And I was faced at the time with a whole stable of these patients having to take care of them.
And so we did an early study demonstrating how this feedback pathway of Leptin and the brain worked and what we could do to try to circumvent it. That not only worked but basically opened up a whole new aspect of this field for me, in terms of the outputs from the brain to the rest of the body to control how fast you burn energy or store it. And that I’ve basically parlayed that over the last 21 years into a career.
Kara GThat’s amazing. So obesity, so is that genetic?Dr. LustigAll the studies, the twin studies, the GWASS, general genome wide association scan studies, basically say that half of obesity is genetic. However, there are a lot of genes involved. There is no one gene that predicts obesity. And if you had the changes that are associated with obesity in every one of those 39 genes that have been associated, it would only add up to about 10 kilos or 22 pounds. Well we have a whole lot bigger problem than 10 kilos. We’re not 10 kilos overweight, were 20 to 30 even to 50 kilos overweight in some cases. And so genetics do not explain this. In addition, our genetic pool hasn’t changed in the last 30 to 40 years, but our environment sure has. And as our environment has changed, our obesity rates have gone through the roof and more importantly our diabetes rates have gone through the roof four times faster.
So it’s not just about obesity and it’s not just about genetics. It is about an environment. And the question is what in the environment drives both weight gain and risk for diabetes? And that’s where I am now.
Kara GAnd by environment you don’t just mean trees and air, you mean…Dr. LustigI do mean trees and air, but that clearly is not the whole story. Because countries that still have trees and air, not like ours, have problems with obesity and diabetes also. Basically obesity has gone up everywhere in the world. Diabetes has gone up in every country except for 10.Kara GInteresting. So where do you see the fastest growing rate of diabetes? Type two diabetes, in the country?Dr. LustigMexico.Kara GInteresting.Dr. LustigMexico, and that’s one of the reasons why they imposed a soda and sugar tax is because they had the highest rate of increase of diabetes with any place. Now the place that has the highest rates of diabetes is actually Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE and Malaysia.Kara GInteresting.Dr. LustigSo why them?Kara GYeah, why them?Dr. LustigVery simple. No alcohol. But they got soft drinks like they’re going out of style. Because number one, it’s hot. Number two, water supply’s a question mark. And number three, no alcohol.Kara GAnd males versus females?Dr. LustigSame. Makes no difference.Kara GReally, really interesting. And what do you think prediabetes? What do you think those rates are? I mean, I hear this constantly from friends, from people who have told me, even their children have been diagnosed with prediabetes.Dr. LustigOh absolutely. So the diabetes rate is 9.3 percent. The prediabetes rate has been postulated to be as high as 40 percent. That’s a lot of people. Now, not every pre diabetic goes on to develop diabetes. That’s true. And there are some studies in children, at least that say that one third will progress on, one third will just stay pre diabetic and one third will actually resolve. So it’s not like having prediabetes is a death now or even the harbinger of disaster. But it begs the question, what’s going on that all of these people who used to be metabolically stable and healthy, what’s going on here? And that’s what I’m interested in.Kara GAbove and beyond the intake of sugar and sweeteners, do you believe like stress plays a role in…?Dr. LustigNo question. Stress is a co-factor in terms of this phenomenon. Here’s the way I like to sort of divvy this thing up. You have three fat pools in your body. You have your subcutaneous or your big butt fat, you have your visceral or your big belly fat, and third, you have your liver fat. Three.
Turns out, you have to fill that subcutaneous fat bucket up completely before you see metabolic changes, and that subcutaneous fat bucket is pretty malleable. You can stretch it out pretty good before you start seeing metabolic changes. Now, different races have different buckets. So African Americans have the biggest bucket, so they can gain the most weight before they start seeing metabolic pathology. Asians have the smallest bucket, and so they started showing problems with prediabetes, diabetes, hypertension, fatty liver disease at a much lower BMI, 10 BMI points lower than the African Americans.
So the subcutaneous bucket is the bucket we measure when we stand on the scale, but if there’s that much play in the system, and if you have to fill that bucket completely before you start seeing metabolic pathology, the subcutaneous fat bucket ain’t the big problem.
Then you go to the visceral fat, or the big belly fat bucket. And it turns out that stress is a primary, major, possibly even the seminal driver of that belly fat, visceral fat. And we know that visceral fat is clearly associated with metabolic disease, unrelated to what happens to the subcutaneous fat.
Give you an example. Depression, clinical depression, causes you to lose weight. Clinical depression is a weight loser, not a weight gainer. Melancholic depression, you don’t eat, you lose weight, but your visceral fat goes up and as your visceral fat goes up, your metabolic status gets worse. And it turns out that the reason that happens is cortisol. The stress hormone, because people who are depressed are very, very cortisol overloaded as part of the phenomenon.
Kara GThat’s so interesting.Dr. LustigSo stress and cortisol drive that visceral fat bucket. But what we have learned now is that the subcutaneous fat bucket and the visceral fat bucket are minuscule compared to the liver fat bucket and the liver fat bucket only contributes about a pound, maybe a pound and a half to your total weight. So you can’t measure it a scale. But it turns out if your liver is fatty, you are sick and you were sick unrelated to how heavy you are.
And there are certain diseases that cause liver fat. Like for instance, lipodystrophy, which is a disease of HIV, in fact, and other problems as well, there are genetic forms of lipodystrophy. But anything that drives that liver fat has been shown to drive metabolic disease. Now, in the old days, if you had liver fat, you were an alcoholic. Alcohol was the primary driver of liver fat and it was the primary driver of metabolic disease. And in the old days, type two diabetes and fatty liver disease, that was alcohol. If you saw that, that was alcohol.
Turns out that’s not what’s going on today. What’s going on today is sugar, and that’s why kids are getting the same diseases as alcoholics. Fatty liver disease and type two diabetes are now in children, but children don’t drink alcohol. Because sugar is the alcohol of the child, because the mitochondria of your liver can’t tell the difference. They are metabolized exactly the same way. And when you overload your liver with sugar or with alcohol, doesn’t matter which, your liver has no choice but to take the excess and turn it into liver fat. And when that liver fat gets laid down, that drives metabolic disease no matter what your weight.
And that’s why we have this now pandemic of type two diabetes in children and prediabetes and children is because of the liver fat, and we now have the proof. We’ve just done a study that was published a month ago in the Journal of Gastroenterology, which demonstrates that if you take the sugar out of kids’ diets and substitute it with starch, not that starches good for you, but basically they’re equity caloric, starch and sugar, they have the same number of calories, four calories per gram, so the total weight doesn’t change. Every aspect of your metabolic health improves and within 10 days and the liver fat reverses and goes away.
Kara GInteresting. So it is reversible, you can stop it.Dr. LustigIf you haven’t scarred it, it’s reversible. So there’s point of no return on liver disease. So if you get grade two or grade three, called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and you start seeing scarring, that is not reversible. But as long as it’s just liver fat and the scoring hasn’t occurred, you can reverse it.Kara GSo I want to talk about your book, Hacking of the American Mind. So how did you decide to, in your busy, busy schedule that you were going to take on writing a book? And tell me sort of, what was really the core of how you decided to do that?Dr. LustigOkay.
First of all, where did I find the time? Who the hell knows? My wife was pretty mad at me.
Kara GYeah.Dr. LustigI mean I got her permission to write the book before I wrote it, you know, even before I put the proposal together for Penguin Random House, but it was a very severe two years. I’m going to tell you, it was not fun. This book has been in my brain for 30 years, but we finally have enough data that it allowed me to write it. But the concept of it has been around for awhile.
I worked at Rockefeller University back in the 1980s and so I knew a little bit about neuroscience. I did six years of post doctoral work in neuroscience. And I knew about these two pathways and these two neurotransmitters that did different things. One called dopamine and one called serotonin. And I knew they were not the same.
Dopamine is the pleasure or reward neurotransmitter. So it’s the thing that goes up in your brain that tells you you like something. Sometimes it’ll like it a little too much. But dopamine is excitatory. In other words, when it binds to its receptor on the next neuron, it excites it. The problem is that when you excite a neuron too often, too much, it dies. It’s called cytotoxicity. It’s one of the reasons that people got real upset about monosodium glutamate because glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter as well and causes cell damage.
We now know that you get a hit, you get a rush, and the receptors go down. Well that means the next time you need a bigger hit to get the same rush because there are fewer receptors, there’s less ability to transduce the signal. So that means you try to occupy more of those receptors. And then the receptors go down and then you get a bigger hit and a bigger hit and a bigger hit until finally get a huge hit to get nothing. So that’s a phenomenon we know in science called tolerance and dopamine exerts tolerance, and many neurotransmitters, and many hormones down regulate their own receptor.
Problem is when the neurons start to die, that’s called addiction. Here’s the key. Serotonin is the contentment neurotransmitter, the one that’s basically says, hey, zen, all’s right with the world. Dopamine is, this feels good, I want more. Serotonin is this feels good, I don’t want or need anymore. Two different phenomena, two different feelings, two different pathways, two different neurotransmitters.
Turns out serotonin is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, so it doesn’t down regulate it’s own receptor, so you can’t overdose on too much happiness. But there’s one thing that down regulates serotonin. Dopamine.
Now, I knew this 30 years ago, but the neuroimaging had not caught up. And then something happened in 2014 that made me write this book. I was getting psychiatry grand rounds at a medical school here in the United States. And as part of my tour, you know, being this visiting professor at this medical school, they took me on a tour of the outpatient psych facility and the woman who ran it was a recovering drug addict and she was telling me about her journey. She was clean and she was doing great. I was very pleased for her.
Kara GThis is 2014?Dr. Lustig2014. And then I got home and I was talking to my sister in law. And she used to work for Pillsbury, which in now General Mills, in Minneapolis. And she used to run their help desk, and she would take the phone calls from people whose pop and fresh dough had icicles them, or you know, found grit in their crescent rolls or whatever, that was her job. But they disbanded when General Mills bought Pillsbury back in 2001. But she stayed friends with all these people and they had a gourmet club and they recently went, and had their gourmet club once a year, and one of the other members of the club who had had bariatric surgery because of her massive obesity and her metabolic disease said to my sister in law, “You stay so nice and thin. How do you do that?”
And my sister in law said to her, I only eat when I’m hungry. The woman says, “Hungry? Eating is not about hunger. Eating is about happiness.” And I thought to myself, oh my God, of course. Well, I knew that because I take care of obese kids. But if this is a sort of mantra that’s going on throughout our society, that the things that cause pleasure, the things that drive dopamine, are being misinterpreted as things that actually provide happiness, then this is basically a breakdown in society and in culture. This is baked in, as it were. And the only way to deal with it as to expose it. And the data on the neuroimaging studies of what goes on in the brain were now available. And so I wrote the book.
Kara GInteresting. And I’m sure you talk about other cases. So beyond the one that sort of helped you develop it, what was sort of the most interesting, beyond that, that you saw just in sort of everyday life?Dr. LustigWell, I lived it. I lived it because my mother was not a very happy person, you know, going back a long way. She had moments of pleasure. She believed money was the root of happiness and she was good at getting it and she was also good at spending it, but it never made her happy. And I thought about her and I thought about people who do their best to amass money, including some people that are, shall we say, prominent in society now. And I thought, are these people ever happy? And they’re not. And it became very clear to me that this is a disconnect, and part of the reason for the disconnect is because we’re told by society, by corporations, by our government, that that which gives us pleasure is really happiness. And if you think that you can buy happiness, you’re going to spend more. And that’s what we’re doing. And the problem is as we spend more, we have become most decidedly unhappy. And all I have to do is point to the addiction crisis and the depression crisis to demonstrate how true that is.Kara GYeah, absolutely. And then you also talk about just, becoming prey to these industries. I mean, it’s, you know, when I talk about addiction to people too, you look at sort of the big businesses that are behind addiction, not only in the soda industries and the food industries, but the alcohol industries.Dr. LustigTurns out, if you look at US GDP, and by the way GDP is part of the problem, and we can talk about the economics of GDP and why it’s a problem. But if you look at the 10 products that America makes that contribute to GDP, the top 10, five of them are hedonic substances.Kara GWhat are those? Roughly.Dr. LustigSo, gasoline, sugar, coffee, there are a bunch. You know, our entire economy is basically based, built on the concept of hedonic substances, driving consumption and therefore driving profit. And the question is, is that okay? Is that a good thing to do? And I’m going to make the argument that no it’s not, it’s not a good thing to do at all.Kara GWell, and how do we reverse that? Right? So I just, I think we’ve grown into be a society built on more is more.Dr. LustigMore is better, more is more.Kara GAnd, Hint is a beverage company, but, you know, people are addicted to carrying something around with them, whether it’s a bottle of water or a bottle of soda, definitely a bottle of water or bottle of Hint is better than a bottle of soda. But you know, in a perfect world we wouldn’t be even addicted to walking out the door with our bottle everyday, right?Dr. LustigThe question is, if you’re going to carry a bottle, what should be in it? And the answer is that which keeps you healthy and hydrated. The problem is the food industry doesn’t want that. The food industry actually wants you to be unhealthy and dehydrated, which is why they sell you caffeine containing, sugar laden beverages. Because caffeine is a diuretic. So when you take on caffeine, you lose water, making you thirstier. In addition, there’s salt in them, which of course makes you thirstier yet again. And so why is there so much sugar? Well, to hide the salt. And of course, because it’s hedonic, addictive, itself. Which then of course it gets you to drink the next one. And they don’t want you to drink eight ounces. They want you to drink 20, so they bottle it very specifically to keep you coming back.
This is an unfortunately well worn and well researched business strategy on their part. You know, they’re not going to change it. The only person who can change it is you. And the thing is you can’t change it if you don’t know it’s happening
Kara GAnd just becoming more aware of everything you’re buying and what it’s potentially doing. Absolutely.Dr. LustigSo the question is, if dopamine is ruling your life and making you miserable in the process because of tolerance, what do you need to do? You have to up your serotonin, is the thing to do, you have to get your serotonin system working right.
So what drives up serotonin? Four things. And they’re the four things your mother told you. But you, because of number one, your busy life. number two, your money in your pocket, and number three, your addiction, never listened to those four. But we have the data that actually demonstrates why these are the case. They’re the four Cs.
First, connect. Now, what does that mean, connect? Does it mean Facebook? Because that’s how people connect today. Turns out Facebook actually drives unhappiness, drives depression, and drives dopamine, and it actually tamps down serotonin, does exactly the opposite of what you want to do. Because it’s not real connection. How do you connect with someone named anonymous? Turns out connection means face to face, interpersonal connection. You actually have to see the person. You can’t even hear the voice. You have to see the person, because you’re reading the face, they’re reading your face and there’s a pathway. There is a system of neurons in your brain called mirror neurons that are absolutely essential for being able to generate empathy. And if you don’t generate empathy, you don’t generate serotonin. So there’s no contentment without empathy. And there’s no empathy without face to face, facial recognition, connection.
Kara GSo just getting outside where people are present and talking or just meeting people is one of the Cs, what’s the second one?Dr. LustigSo social connection. Real social connection. Religion can serve that purpose or you know, clubs, or other social venues where you have interpersonal interaction, people. So that’s number one, connect.
Number two, contribute. Now there are two ways to contribute. You can contribute to yourself, like salary, like making money, or contribute to others. It turns out that in order to generate serotonin you have to contribute to others. So salary doesn’t work. It has to be beyond yourself. It has to be contributing to some social venue or cause. The people who are happy are the people who are doing something for others. That can be with their money, so they can do it with philanthropy, they can do it with volunteerism, that can do with their time, they can do it very specifically, they can do it in their jobs, there are different ways to do it. But if it’s purely for your own personal self benefit, or selfishness, it does not generate serotonin. So, contribute.
Three, cope. So cope means sleep, mindfulness, exercise. Turns out we do everything we can to destroy all three of those because we have screens which keep us from sleeping. Just having, charging your phone in your room while you’re, you know when you go to sleep, reduces your total sleep by 28 minutes, just by charging it in your room. In addition, studies have now been shown where if you’re taking a test, if your phone is on the table, it takes you three times longer to accomplish finishing the test. You haven’t turned it on, it’s just there.
Kara GSo put the phone out in the other room.Dr. LustigAbsolutely. Number two, mindfulness. We pride ourselves on multitasking, and we prize the people who do it. Turns out only 2.5 percent of the population can do it effectively. Everybody else, is uni-tasking and basically going from one thing to another, and what that does is it drives up cortisol, which drives up visceral fat which drives up metabolic disease, which down regulates serotonin because cortisol inhibits the serotonin receptor. So multitasking turns out to be not so good for you, but it’s what’s prized. So it’s baked in, as it were. So it’s a problem.
And then finally exercise. It turns out exercise has benefits of it’s own having nothing to do with calories, having nothing to do with even metabolic health, it has to do with serotonin. It actually drives up serotonin by itself. So there are a lot of reasons to do those three things. That’s coping.
And then finally, number four, the big kahuna. Cook. For yourself, or for you and for your family. Because only you know what went into the food you cooked.
Kara GSo it’s not the pleasure of cooking, it’s the actual…Dr. LustigIt’s the social aspect of it. The fact that you’re sitting down with your family. And also there are three items in our diet that impacts serotonin directly. First one tryptophan, which is the precursor of serotonin, so it turns out it’s the rarest amino acid in our diet. So you have to eat foods that are high in tryptophan, which is fish. Number two, fructose. Now, fructose doesn’t have serotonin, fructose depletes serotonin. And by the way, fructose ups your dopamine. And since dopamine down regulates serotonin, as we talked about, fructose is a major problem. So the more sugar in your diet, the worse off you are.
And then finally, number three, Omega three fatty acids. So omega three fatty acids are what you get in fish, you know, and the thing is that people think if they eat salmon, they’re going to get omega threes. And they should get omega threes, it depends on where the salmon came from. If it came from the ocean, yes, because the salmon ate the algae. Turns out the algae Omega threes, the fish eat the algae, we eat the fish, we get it third hand. Fish don’t make Omega threes, they eat omega threes. But farmed fish eat corn. That’s Omega sixes and Omega sixes are pro inflammatory and don’t contribute to Omega threes. Why are Omega threes important? Well they  increase neuro[inaudible 00:32:07] they allow neurons to regain their shape when they’re compressed. And neurons are compressed all the time because fluid changes inside the brain happens all the time. They are anti inflammatory. They are the precursors of EPA and Dha, two essential fatty acids that are necessary for myelin, for neurotransmission. And you get them from fish, salmon and flax are the two top things.
Kara GAnd if you don’t eat fish, what, how much should you take?Dr. LustigSo, a gram of fish oil twice a day would probably be a good idea. But you have to make sure that the fish oil is made from wild fish, not from farmed fish. So you have to read the label. So not every fish oil is the same as every other fish oil.Kara GYeah, quality.Dr. LustigQuality matters. So there they are, the four Cs. Connect, contribute, cope and cook. And these are all things your mother told you or grandmother told you. But you didn’t stop to think about why those would be the case because you know, you were too busy making your second million or you know, having that slice of pizza at the corner store or you know, binging on Netflix.Kara GWell, sadly I think we all, the older we get too, that we find we look back on life and say we were on autopilot. Right? And I think that this is just another example.Dr. LustigAbsolutely.Kara GBut I think there’s so many people today who are really trying to reverse some of those things and actually stop for a minute and think and do things that are actually gonna for the rest of their life, be part of their life. So this is awesome.Dr. LustigIndeed it has, but the thing is, all those things have to be conscious and they can’t be conscious if you don’t understand them. So you have to bring them to the front of your brain. And the thing is that corporations and the government have done their level best to bury them. So until you understand the problem, you can’t fix the problem. And you know, the data are the data and this book is completely science based, it’s driven by science. But when you understand the science, then you understand the role of place in the social argument. And that’s what this book is, popular science meeting, social criticism.Kara GInteresting. Great. Well thank you so much Dr. Lustig. I really, really appreciate it.Dr. LustigThank you, Kara. My pleasure.Kara GThanks so much for listening to Unstoppable. If you liked what you heard, please help spread the word and leave us a review. You can also follow along with me on Facebook, Instagram, twitter, and Linkedin at Kara Goldin. Do you have a question for me or want to nominate an innovator to spotlight? Please talk to me at karagoldin.com. Until next time, be Unstoppable.VoiceoversThe addictive nature of modern food.
Diabetes epidemic.